This website is written in French, the summary is longer than normal with the goal to help the English reader to better access and understand the main ideas.
This website is coming up from a doctoral thesis. It presents a reflection of what the author names the poietic (la poïétique). The concept of poietic should de better understood after this work than before, encouraged by the clearing realized by the emptying of the obvious (évidement de l’évidemment).
The poietic, a concept used since Greek times to conceptualize the creative phenomena, is defined here as being a rising transdisciplinary, artistic and scientific discipline, which studies and takes care of creative processes in the development of human beings and of their societies.
The author proposes the term of poietic as a continuation and development of that which is known as Art-Therapy which has become too unsatisfactory, vague or limited to a too much restricted area. Art-Therapy is too often simple nursing equipment made by a collage of artistic techniques and psychological theories. Although useful in the last fifty years, the idea of art-therapy allows us to think about the fascinating meeting between the artistic processes with that of the therapy, understood in a large meaning: the accompaniment of the human beings in change towards their health or well-being.
It becomes interesting, important, to refocus on the essential processes which are present in the studios and which take place in very diverse contexts: with very diverse populations and problems and also in specific and very diverse purposes. Whereby the proposition of a new name for this domain of practice and knowledge: the poietic.
The poietic deals above all with the opening work, the work which opens to the transformation of the world and human beings. It takes charge with understanding, with theorizing and with facilitating the conditions of the apparition of the human change. Its theorization must be strongly anchored in the practice because it is the practice which is the cradle of any human evolution. The poietic refers to the human sciences and to the arts, in their meanings of creative process.
Written in a traditional shape at the beginning, this study became a website along the way. This choice became imperative in the course of writing with the goal to be as coherent as possible by the subject: the field, as well as with the current context of the development of the knowledge, where the internet occupies more and more place and meaning. This website should evolve in the next few years, with researches and conceptualizations.
A situation of artistic creation and a clinical situation of expressive psychotherapy launches the research and allows one to ask the questions and the themes developed therein.
In the rainy paintings, the author is confronted with a phenomenon of creation by Nature, in which he takes part secondarily. He notices then that any creation is realized by the field of the situation more than by the author himself, as we are in the habit of thinking in the modern western world. Even while one let’s go one’s fondness for the will and the project help the creator to be the most creative. To know how to lose one’s fondness for all what we are and for beliefs is difficult.
In the clinical situation of the lady with the book, the author notices once again at which point the creative phenomenon mobilizes the field of the partners in presence. He also notices that the meaning given to the creations is transformed according to the point of view that we adopt, which is always subjective or inter-subjective.
The field and the point of view are then the two main themes which are investigated on this website.
The concept of field is studied at first in its etymology. The main active theories of the field in the human sciences are presented. The authors who are approached such as Kurt Lewin and his concept of field of strength which marked the history of psychology, the developments of Merleau-Ponty in phenomenology, then the developments of the bionian and post-bionian psychoanalysis, with Claudio Neri and Antonino Ferro, as well as the South American psychoanalysis, with Baranger and José Bleger. The synchronicity of Jung is also connected with the concept of field. Finally, are presented Daniel Stern's last researches on the therapeutic field which place the psychotherapy between the phenomenological and psychoanalytical references.
The field is then presented in its spatial dimension upon the description of a Genevan institution of first childhood, le Cerf-Volant (the Kite), which was conceived, unconsciously, by a team of architects and psychologists just like the human body, probably inspired by the goal and use of the place.
The spatiality of the field is a place (un lieu), a site, a space not objectively bounded, but an inhabited space of creative acts, physical sensations, feelings. The spatiality of the field is a subjective space inhabited by all the present partners.
Two artistic situations of the author illustrate and offer a continuation of the reflections on the spatial dimension of the field: Malval and le Grand Golem bleu. Malval is a place of creation close to Geneva where the author often makes Land Art actions; le grand Golem bleu is an essential work of the author in which the spectators were invited to participate "involuntarily" in the process of creation by walking on the painting packed and put on the ground on which was deposited a dough of pigments. The trail of the passages of the spectators-authors formed the framework of the figure, Golem appearing then in the studio of the artist, the confrontation in the otherness, in the losing of one’s fondness of the creative process, in the space of representational intention, in the surprise.
The field is then studied in its temporality. Some essential theories of time are presented, between objective and subjective time. Of Héraclite who conceived time lived objectively as a river which passes by, the past situated in the glacier and the future in the sea, we go to Merleau-Ponty, who conceived the time lived subjectively as a river which passes by, where the past of the experience of meeting the water is in the sea and the future experience is in the glacier.
Paul Ricoeur is approached with his time of the narrative, Heidegger and his present time-regard, Augen-Blick, as well as Henri Maldiney with his time of the rhythm, which suggests considering the present as being at the origin of time and not the past, as we are in the habit there. It is the same author who underlines an essential dimension of time, the kaïros, the right time, a very useful concept in art-therapy and in psychotherapy to think about the appropriate moment to say or to make something.
The psychoanalyst and phenomenologist Nicolas Abraham who also studied the time by putting at the heart of his theory the notion of desire, which opens the maturation of the person, who is going to push in a process of infinite symbolization, through several different conceptions of time, according to his/her level of development.
Daniel Stern, still, underlined the importance of the present moment in psychotherapy and became an inescapable reference in the study of the temporality of the therapeutic field.
The following chapter allows the author to present a fundamental dimension of the phenomenon of field which is named by the author: le regard / the glance. The glance, complex concept, is connected with the intentionality of phenomenology, with the vertex of the post-bionian psychoanalysis, and with the constructionist psychology. It groups and includes in a single entity several variables which move in a relative dependence.
If the field develops in its spatiality and in its temporality, it would not exist without a certain glance which the present partners dedicate to it. A glance normally excludes all the others, or put them in the background. This particular glance, by the choice of variables and values of these variables which it prioritizes, creates a world, the field in which the partners are moving. To adopt common enough glances allows the meeting of the partners. Different enough, their glances can enrich the shift of the otherness. A binocular vision saw Bion. The etymological study of the word regard (glance) is at this moment very interesting because it allows the collection of some essential dimensions of the phenomenon, better than the concepts of point of view, vector or orientation.
A scientific research, an essential element of this study was realized between 2000 and 2004 about the points of view which arts-therapists develop in relation with their patients and with the emergent creations in the sessions realized in Paediatric units of five main Swiss's general hospitals.
Of this research, carried out according to the method of Grounded Theory, appear several reports: the variety of points of view, coherence of six major points of view which were always present in the descriptions of the sessions of the studied practitioners, the flexibility of the practitioners to move from a point of view to an other one in the course of the sessions as well as the differential development of these points of view in the course of the sessions.
This research confirms the existence and the utility of the concept of point of view, developed then in the concept of glance in this web site. This chapter is also the occasion to propose a reflection on the useful and coherent research modalities in art-therapy and poietic. These modalities must respect the complexity of a trans-subjective subject.
Then, some essential concepts of the poietic are rather briefly presented. This chapter will be certainly the one which may have to be the most developed in the next years.
The next section, about the hut, allows thinking about the shape and about the atmosphere of the studio convenient to the poietic processes. The proposed settings must be enough simple, clear, solid as well as adjusted and psycho-degradable. The crystallization and the composting are proposed as two types of poietic shaping, present in alternation and in complementarities. The crystallization, modelled by Paolo Knill, emphasizes the emergence of the new which crystallizes in an artistic shape. The composting is a concept elaborated by the author of this website to underline the process of a necessary deconstruction. This deconstruction is useful and essential in every act of creation before the crystallization can be developed.
The alphabetisation, finally, is presented from the bionian concepts of function alpha and of capacity of reverie. The author, through a presentation of the last developments of psychoanalysts such as Antonino Ferro or Claudio Neri, suggests to understand the alphabetisation process in several stages inhabited by different logics as well as in several meaning modalities, such as the image, classically connected with the function alpha, the sound, the physical movement, the scenic presence, the word and the couple smell-taste. A growth of the psychoanalytical understanding of the alphabetisation comes out from the confrontation to the poietic.
A dozen clinical situations are assembled in a separate section. A half-dozen artistic situations are assembled in another section.
The scientific research is also welcomed in a specific section, with the basic material of the reflection, the transcriptions of the sessions, as well as with all the boards which served for developing the reflection.
A very wide and complete bibliography on the subject is then presented in a general and also in thematic shapes. Finally the external internet links, proposed in the course of pages, are assembled in a specific page to create a platform of takeoff towards the internet. It places the website and the reflection on the poietic in the internet context, in its semiosphere. The readers can then surf in their own way and transform their glances on the poietic through the sources used to build this web site and with the other links proposed in reference sites.
A discussion group is finally accessible purpose to facilitate the dialogue of the visitors and the growth of the knowledge and the conceptualization of the poietic.